Pigmentation or dark patches on the face could occur due to various reasons. Indians have darker skin colour compared to Caucasians, that is medically termed as Fitz Patrick type 3- 4 skin. This makes it vulnerable to pigmentation and darkening. In a place like Kochi, avoiding sunlight plays a crucial role in treatment of pigmentation.
The common causes of pigmentation are
1. Tanning - occurs due to prolonged and long standing exposure to sunlight
2. Melasma - called "mask of pregnancy" where brown to tan patches occur on cheeks, nose, forehead and chin
3. Acanthosis nigricans - darkened and thickened skin due to underlying endocrine abnormalities
4. Post inflammatory pigmentation - pigmentation left behind by acne, and
5. Lichen planus pigmentosus - slate grey pigmentation of unknown cause
6. Freckles and age spots
Treatment of pigmentation -
Treatment of pigmentation depends on the cause. A few common measures can be taken-
1. Sunscreen - Strict sunscreen use plays a crucial role in managing pigmentation
2. Lightening agents - like Kojic acid, liquorice, arbutin, etc
3. Chemical peels - help in lightening of pigmentation
4. Mesolightening procedure - helps to infuse anti oxidants like vitamin C and glutathione directly into the skin and therby reduce pigmentation
5. Oral anti-oxidants - help in fighting against free radicals
At Twacha Skin and Hair Clinic, we use different modalities for pigmentation treatment and try to achieve the best possible results.
You could also read an article by Dr. Preethi Nagaraj titled "Ways to tackle those annoying facial spots" published in B Positive magazine February 2017.
Also refer another article by Dr. Preethi Nagaraj titled "5 common sunscreen mistakes" published in B Positive magazine September 2017.